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6 Proven Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar
Vinegar is a condiment which is acidic. It is one of the few acidic condiments used in the world. Vinegar can be a grain vinegar or fruit vinegar based on the raw material from which it is made (1).
Ancient Greek Hippocrates in 400 B.C. started using fruit vinegars to treat issues such as wound inflammations, cough, ulcers, and infectious diseases.
Vinegar can be made from any food which contains carbohydrate. First the food sugars are fermented by yeast to alcohol. After that the alcohol is converted to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter) (2).
Apple cider vinegar is made from the raw materials, apple. Apple vinegar is made from apple juice by alcohol fermentation and acetic acid fermentation (3). Apple cider vinegar is known to have several therapeutic properties and can be used to improve health.
Effect of apple cider vinegar on weight loss
In a study apple cider vinegar 30 ml was given along with 250 kcal energy deficit per day. After 3 months apple cider vinegar significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, hip circumference, visceral adiposity index and appetite score (4).
The acetic acid component of vinegar is responsible for the weight loss functional property of vinegar a review of research work proposed (1).
Apple cider vinegar improves lipid profile
Apple cider vinegar along with reduced calorie intake improved lipid profile in subjects of a study compared to just reduced calorie intake. The triglyceride and total cholesterol levels decreased significantly while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (4).
In a literature review it was proposed that the improvement in lipid profile of vinegar is because of the acetic acid in it (1).
Glucose lowering effect of apple cider vinegar
A review of literature concluded that vinegar has a potential to be an adjuvant in the diabetes management and therefore more research has to be done on this front (5).
In a study conducted on diabetic subjects, they were given 15 ml apple cider vinegar a day for 3 months. It had a positive effect on HbA1C and fasting blood glucose (6). In a review of research work done the blood glucose control property of vinegar was attributed to acetic acid (1).
Diabetes is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases. The total cholesterol and triglyceride lowering effect was exhibited by apple cider vinegar in a study conducted on diabetic patients (6).
Antimicrobial property of apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar has multiple antimicrobial effects. The mechanisms by which apple cider vinegar acts include alteration of the microbial protein physiology by damaging the structural pathogenic proteins and metabolic enzymes (7).
The study concluded that because of the beneficial antimicrobial actions of apple cider vinegar, work should be carried out on how apple cider vinegar supplementation can play an important antimicrobial role and which components are responsible for this action (7).
The anti-bacterial and anti‐infection abilities of vinegars were attributed mainly due to the organic acids, polyphenols, and melanoidins present in them (1).
Antioxidant activity of apple cider vinegar
Bioactive components in food such as polyphenols and vitamins have antioxidant activity. These are important constituents of apple cider vinegar (8). Apple cider vinegar contains phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p‐coumaric acid somewhere between 400 -1000 mg/l.
Antioxidants have the ability to stop the damaging effect of free radicals which may cause several degenerative diseases such as faster aging, cancer and brain disorders (8).
The antioxidant property of vinegars was because of polyphenols present in the raw materials and melanoidins which are produced during the process of fermentation (1).
Anticarcinogenic activity of apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar because of its antioxidant activity may help in inhibition of tumour growth in early stages (9).
Apple vinegar component neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan exhibited the activity of an antitumor agent against experimental mouse tumours (10). Intake of fruit vinegars over a long period of time may have anticancer effects in humans was what was concluded from a review of research work done (1).
Apple cider vinegar is proven to have several benefits. But the work is not substantial and research is still going on. Till then why not use it as an ingredient which adds acidity or tartness to your recipes. It can provide some health benefits when used as a part of a balanced diet.
Any ingredient cannot work miracles and it is better to be cautious than overdoing it. Till there is proved and consistent results about dosage and safety use it as a food ingredient.
- Chen, H., Chen, T., Giudici, P. and Chen, F. (2016) Vinegar Functions on Health: Constituents, Sources, and Formation Mechanisms, Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety. Vol. 15 (6).
- Johnston, C.S., Gaas, C.A. (2006) Vinegar: Medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect, MedGenMed: Medscape general medicine. Vol. 8(2).
- Song, J., Zhang, J. H., Kang, S. J., Zhang, H. Y., Yuan, J., Zeng, C. Z., Huang, Y. L. (2019) Analysis of microbial diversity in apple vinegar fermentation process through 16s rDNA sequencing, Food science & nutrition. Vol. 7(4).
- Khezri, S.S., Saidpour, A., Hosseinzadeh, N. and Amiri, Z. (2018) Beneficial effects of Apple Cider Vinegar on weight management, Visceral Adiposity Index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: A randomized clinical trial, Journal of Functional Foods. Vol. 43.
- Siddiqui, F. J., Assam, P. N., de Souza, N. N., Sultana, R., Dalan, R. and Chan, E. S. (2018) Diabetes Control: Is Vinegar a Promising Candidate to Help Achieve Targets?, Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine. Vol.23.
- Kausar, S., Abbas, M. A., Ahmad, H., Yousef, N., Ahmed, Z., Humayun, N., Ashfaq, H. and Humayun, A. (2019) Effect of Apple Cider Vinegar in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Poor Glycemic Control: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Design, International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences. Vol. 8 (2).
- Yagnik, D., Serafim, V. and Shah, A. (2018) Antimicrobial activity of apple cider vinegar against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; downregulating cytokine and microbial protein expression, Scientific Reports. Vol. 8 (1). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322766326_Antimicrobial_activity_of_apple_cider_vinegar_against_Escherichia_coli_Staphylococcus_aureus_and_Candida_albicans_downregulating_cytokine_and_microbial_protein_expression
- Budak, N. H., Aykin, E., Seydim, A. C., Greene, A. K. and Guzel‐Seydim, Z. B. (2014) Functional Properties of Vinegar, Journal of Food Science. Vol. 79 (5).
- Shetty, S., Hegde, K. and Shabaraya, A. R. (2018) Amazing facts about apple cider vinegar (acv) –A traditional home remedy: A review, International Journal of Pharma and Chemical Research. Vol. 4 (2).
- Abe, K., Kushibiki, T., Matsue, H., Furukawa, K. and Motomura, S. (2007) Generation of antitumor active neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan in apple vinegar fermentation, Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. Vol. 71 (9).