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Can You Lose Weight by Drinking Apple Cider Vinegar?
Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health Overweight and obesity are problems which are growing at a rapid rate globally in the past few decades. A person is categorised under the class of obese when the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30.
Globally obesity has tripled since 1975. In the year 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults, were overweight. Among these over 650 million were obese (1). Some of the obesity related complications are diabetes, heart disease, dementia and cancer.
Diet plays an important role in a person gaining excessive weight. There is always a search going on for foods and food ingredients which can contribute to weight loss and weight management. And a lot of research is undertaken on foods to establish their weight loss properties and mechanisms involved.
Vinegar is an acidic condiment. It is one of the few acidic condiments used in the world. Vinegar can be a grain vinegar or a fruit vinegar based on the raw material from which it is made (2).
Traditionally vinegar is made from raw materials containing sugar or starch in a 2‐stage fermentation. First ethanol is produced and then acetic acid (3). Vinegar is used mostly to pickle fruits and vegetables, to prepare mayonnaise, salad dressings, mustard, and other food condiments.
Ancient Greek Hippocrates in 400 B.C. started using fruit vinegar to treat issues such as wound inflammations, cough, ulcers, and infectious diseases.
Vinegar can be made from any food which contains carbohydrate. First the food sugars are fermented by yeast to alcohol. After that the alcohol is converted to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter) (4).
Apple cider vinegar (ACV)
Apple cider vinegar is made from the raw materials, apple. Apple vinegar is made from apple juice by alcohol fermentation and acetic acid fermentation (5). Vinegar contains several components but the major constituent is 4 to 8 % of acetic acid (6).
Effect of apple cider vinegar on weight loss
In a study apple cider vinegar, 30 ml was given along with 250 kcal energy deficit per day. After 3 months apple cider vinegar significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, hip circumference, visceral adiposity index and appetite score (7).
The acetic acid component of vinegar is responsible for the weight loss functional property of vinegar a review of research work proposed (2).
The acetic acid in vinegar increases short-term satiety (4).
The effect of apple vinegar intake by obese Japanese was studied. It was observed that 15 ml of apple vinegar per day for 12 weeks resulted in reduced body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels without causing any adverse effects (6).
Apple cider vinegar is proven to have several benefits and one among them is, it contributes towards weight loss. ACV because of the acetic acid can erode teeth enamel and also cause other side effects.
There is not enough substantial evidence about dosage, safety and health benefits of ACV though initial results are encouraging. Any ingredient cannot work miracles and it is better to be cautious than overdoing it.
Use ACV as an ingredient which adds acidity or tartness to your recipes.
- World Health Organization (2018). Obesity and overweight
- Chen, H., Chen, T., Giudici, P. and Chen, F. (2016) Vinegar Functions on Health: Constituents, Sources and Formation Mechanisms, Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety. Vol. 15 (6).
- Budak, N.H., Aykin, E., Seydim, A. C., Greene, A. K. and Guzel‐Seydim, Z. B. (2014) Functional Properties of Vinegar, Journal of food science. Vol. 79 (5).
- Johnston, C.S., Gaas, C.A. (2006) Vinegar: Medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect, MedGenMed: Medscape general medicine. Vol. 8(2).
- Song, J., Zhang, J. H., Kang, S. J., Zhang, H. Y., Yuan, J., Zeng, C. Z., Huang, Y. L. (2019) Analysis of microbial diversity in apple vinegar fermentation process through 16s rDNA sequencing, Food science & nutrition. Vol. 7(4).
- Kondo, T., Kishi, M., Fushimi, T., Ugajin, S. and Kaga, T. (2009) Vinegar Intake Reduces Body Weight, Body Fat Mass, and Serum Triglyceride Levels in Obese Japanese Subjects, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. Vol. 73 (8).
- Khezri, S.S., Saidpour, A., Hosseinzadeh, N. and Amiri, Z. (2018) Beneficial effects of Apple Cider Vinegar on weight management, Visceral Adiposity Index and lipid profile in overweight or obese subjects receiving restricted calorie diet: A randomized clinical trial, Journal of Functional Foods. Vol. 43.